The Damaging Effects of Using Master Streams on Masonry Construction during a Fire

In this article, we will explore the damaging effects that can occur when using master streams during a fire on masonry construction. Understanding these effects is crucial for fire departments and building owners to minimize potential damage and ensure the safety of all involved.

I. Understanding Master Streams:

Master streams are high-capacity water streams used by fire departments to combat large fires. They are typically delivered through specialized equipment, such as aerial ladder pipes or deck guns, and can deliver a significant amount of water per minute.

II. Damaging Effects on Masonry Construction:

  1. Thermal Shock:
  • Masonry materials, such as concrete, brick, or stone, can experience thermal shock when rapidly exposed to high volumes of water from master streams.
  • The sudden cooling effect can cause the outer layers of masonry to contract rapidly, potentially leading to cracks and structural damage.
  1. Spalling:
  • Intense heat and the sudden application of water from master streams can cause spalling, which refers to the breaking off or flaking of the outer surface of masonry.
  • The combination of extreme temperatures can cause moisture trapped within the masonry to rapidly expand, leading to surface deterioration.
  1. Weakening

Direct exposure to fires reaching 593 degrees Celsius or higher cause the bars to lose strength; buckling results. However, permanent damage will not occur if buckling or physical deformities in the steel are not observed. A fire can significantly compromise the structural strength of a concrete masonry wall.

What is a major problem with masonry construction?

Cracks are a common problem with masonry construction. They can occur when a building settles or because of moisture penetration. Poor preparation of mortar can also cause cracking in the joints. Natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods can also exert pressure on a masonry wall or foundation, leading to cracks.

Which of the following is a drawback to masonry construction?

Drawbacks to masonry include long-term deterioration of mortar joints, and the labor-intensiveness of laying individual units by hand. Masonry has NO tensile strength and is used to support compressive loads.

What are the problems with masonry deterioration?

Masonry deterioration problems include blistering, chipping, coving, cracking, crazing, crumbling, delamination, detachment, efflorescence, errosion, exfoliation, flaking, friability, peeling, pitting, rising damp, salt fretting, spalling, subflorescence, sugaring, surface crust / surface induration, and weathering.

What is the most common cause of damage to masonry?


Moisture. The number-one culprit for masonry damage is moisture. Depending on what your bricks are made of (clay, concrete, etc…) the material can be porous and absorb water. Rain, leaks, and runoff can cause cracks and crumbling and can damage the structure behind or under your masonry work.

What construction features tend to contain fires for a longer period of time?

The construction feature that tends to contain fires for a longer period of time, thus creating fuel-rich, ventilation-limited environments is b. Energy-efficient designs. Energy-efficient designs often incorporate features such as high levels of insulation, airtightness, and reduced ventilation rates.

What are three reasons for performing ventilation at a structure fire?

When effective ventilation has been performed on the fire ground, it will allow interior crews to gain access to the seat of the fire. Proper ventilation increases visibility and reduces heat� Additionally, it will allow for quicker extinguish- ment of the fire to reduce property damage.

Frequently Asked Questions

What keeps fire burning for a long time?

Regularly add more kindling or tinder to help keep your flames burning longer and hotter. Leaning logs against each other in a criss-cross pattern can help keep them upright while creating an efficient airflow through which oxygen can reach deeper into the pile and create a larger flame.

Who pays for the ambulance if they call someone?

In general, the person being treated by the paramedics is responsible for paying any fees for treatment or transport, even if they didn't request the ambulance. Entitlements to ambulance services vary from state to state.

What are the signs placed on the outside of containers holding hazardous materials called?

Placards are located on the outside of hazardous materials containers and are meant to help you correctly identify the hazardous material present.

Which construction method is particularly susceptible to extension of fire upward through walls?

Final answer: Balloon frame construction is most susceptible to the extension of fire upward through walls due to its continuous wooden structures running from the foundation to the roof and the absence of fire-stopping material.

Which type of ventilation openings can be used to stop fire spread in long narrow buildings such as strip malls?

The trench cut (otherwise known as "strip ventilation") is a long narrow ventilation hole that acts as a fire break on the roof of a structure that is being attacked by fire.

What does the C stand for in receo vs?

In 1953, Lloyd Layman published Fire Fighting Tactics, a book that contained an acronym that would shape the next 60 years of fireground operations: RECEO-VS (R-Rescue, E-Exposure, C-Confinement, E-Extinguishment, O-Overhaul, and V-Ventilation, S-Salvage).

Which type of construction is most susceptible to fire damage?

Type V Construction – Wood Frame

This type of construction presents almost unlimited potential for fire extension within the building of origin and to nearby structures, particularly if the nearby structures are also wood-frame construction.

Why is it important for firefighters to know the buildings in their response area?

Firefighters' direct knowledge of a building's features, hazards, and layout is often the most important factor in facilitating an effective response and attack in a fire situation.

Which of the following situational awareness clues alert firefighters to the possibility a building may be occupied?

Resource summary

Which of the following situational awareness clues alert firefighters to the possibility a building may be occupied?Vehicles in the driveway
Which of the following is the BEST way to perform a quick visual survey of conditions while on the fire floorGet low to the floor

What predictions can firefighters make about fire development if they have knowledge of building construction?

Appreciating how a building is designed, what materials are used in its construction as well as its occupancy and use allows a firefighter to predict entry points, fire spread, search and rescue timing, evacuation corridors and ventilation routes for a final suppression outcome.


What is one challenge that newer buildings might present to firefighters?

One challenge that newer buildings might present to firefighters is that they: use technology that may not be fully tested.

What effect does building construction have on fires?

With walls often not yet complete, void spaces can create a wind tunnel effect during a fire, intensifying the flames. Firefighters may be unable to safely enter unfinished buildings, which may have unprotected stairwells and other dangerous conditions.

Which safety guideline will help minimize a firefighters exposure to risk any structural fire scene?

Expert-Verified Answer. Maintaining communication with team members and command is the safety guideline that is most likely to help minimize a firefighter's exposure to risk at a structural fire scene(B). Firefighting is a dangerous profession, and structural fires can pose significant risks to firefighters' safety.

What are at least three things that knowledge of construction types can help firefighters identify?

Each construction type is unique, and firefighters must have a good working knowledge of building construction, the materials and connections used, how smoke and fire will spread inside and outside of structures, how fire affects the materials and connections, what may fail, how it may fail, and what happens when it

What are the 5 phases of a construction project?
Here's how the typical five stages of the construction process break down.
  • Phase 1: Pre-Design (Project Initiation)
  • Phase 2: Design (Pre-Construction)
  • Phase 3: Procurement.
  • Phase 4: Construction and Monitoring.
  • Phase 5: Post-Construction (Closeout)
  • Create a Detailed Plan.
  • Efficiently Track Project Progress.
What are the 4 phases of construction?

The construction process is typically divided into 4 essential phases: Planning, Preconstruction, Construction and Close-out.

What are the 7 stages of construction?
Here's the process:
  • Step 1: Design. During this phase, the client places a project for bidding.
  • Step 2: Pre-Construction.
  • Step 3: Procurement.
  • Step 4: Construction.
  • Step 5: Commissioning.
  • Step 6: Owner Occupancy.
  • Step 7: Project Closeout.
What are the 3 phases of construction?
  • Pre-Construction Phase. The pre-construction phase includes creating a strategic plan for the project, creating a design, securing permits or entitlements, and gathering the labor and resources required for construction.
  • Construction Phase.
  • Post- Construction Phase.
What are the 6 phases of construction project?

But rather than deal with the project as one big undertaking, it's more manageable to break it down into segments or construction phases. There are six critical stages of construction: pre-construction, sitework, rough framing, exterior construction, MEP (mechanical, electrical, and plumbing), and finishing.

What does the C in slice rs stand for?

Cool from a safe distance

C – Cool from a safe distance. E – Extinguish. R – Rescue. S – Salvage.

The use of master streams during a fire can have what damaging effect on masonry construction?

How do you climb fire escape?

So you're better off climbing the trap ladder from out. Front also prior to climbing it give it a little shake make sure it's in its tracks. Before climbing and putting your body's weight.

How do you open the ladder in fire escape?

It is stable and easy to climb. Out. On the way it works is you just open your window. Pull out the release pin unfold the ladder. And you are ready to go.

Why are fire escape ladders single use?

The ladder is packaged in such a way that once deployed it may not be reused. IMPORTANT: The ladder is designed for one time use only, and should only be deployed in the event of a home fire emergency. Discard after single use. Repeat use of this product could result in severe injury or death.

Can you climb up a fire escape ladder? The drop ladder on a fire escape is a very difficult ladder to climb because it's narrow and vertical, going from the ground to the first landing, which is usually the second floor.

How do fire escape ladders work?

Portable escape ladder with hook

The most traditional of fire escape ladders has a 'C'-shaped hook which is placed over the window sill and wall of a window. The ladder itself is then lowered out of the window.

What type of bed spring construction consist of springs mounted on a wood frame and covered with a pad?

Box spring

Box spring: Also referred to as a “foundation.” A base for an innerspring mattress, consisting of coils or other forms of springs mounted on a wood or metal frame and secured with a wire-interlaced or welded-wire grid, topped with upholstery and insulating materials (felt, urethane or other resilient materials), and

Which is correct when working with bed linens?

➢ When handling linens, practice medical asepsis. Always hold linens away from your body and uniform. Never shake linens. Place clean linens on a clean surface.

When assigned to make a bed what information do you need from the nurse or care plan?

Before making a bed, obtain this information from the nurse and care plan: What type of bed to make—closed, open, occupied, or surgical. If you need to use a cotton drawsheet. If you need to use a waterproof drawsheet, waterproof pad, or incontinence product.

Which of the following is done to prepare an open bed quizlet?

Which of the following is done to prepare an open bed? Fanfold the top linen to the foot of the bed.

  • What is the difference between a bed foundation and a box spring?
    • The main difference between these bed base options is the support level they provide. Box springs have some give to them, while foundations don't. Foundations provide a firmer sleeping surface and box springs provide one that's a little more flexible.

  • Which construction feature of older buildings provides a path for rapid spread of fire?
    • Which construction feature of older buildings provides provides a path for rapid spread of fire. balloon-frame construction. Which exemption or privileges do 

  • What temperature will steel start to lose its strength and elongate?
    • Steel expansion can cause collapse of exterior walls and parapets. Steel begins to elongate at 800º and can fail at temperatures above 1,000º.

  • Which type of construction is used for almost all modern wood frame construction?
    • Also known as Wood Frame construction, Type V construction has exterior walls, bearing walls, floors, roofs and supports made completely or partially of wood or other approved materials of smaller dimensions than those used for Heavy Timber construction.

  • How many layers will a typical built up roof covering have?
    • BUR systems are field-assembled roofing systems that are layered – typically using 3-5 alternate layers of roofing felt and asphalt, and tar or cold tar ( or a cold-applied adhesive.) The material used varies depending on the size, design, and budget.

  • What problems must be anticipated when considering the fire risks associated with a construction or demolition site?
    • What problems must be anticipated when considering the fire risks associated with a construction or demolition site? automatic sprinklers may not work, smoke alarms may not work or disconnected, and no coverings on walls which allows the wood framing to be exposed etc

  • At what temperature is steel most brittle?
    • The temperature at which this drop in toughness occurs is called the “Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature” (DBTT) which is about -75°C for the 0.01% carbon steel above. Each steel has an “upper shelf” toughness at higher temperatures and a “lower shelf” toughness at low temperatures.

  • Which of the following statements about fire extinguishers at a construction site is most accurate?
    • Which of the following statements regarding emergency access to a construction site by first responders is MOST accurate? Fences, barriers, and excavations 

  • State of decay how to climb fire escape from builders
    • Nov 4, 2015 — This might be possible, assuming the fire escape is reachable from the ground level. Although if it's really open, you might regret climbing up 

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