Remodeling is regulated by a variety of growth factors, primarily TGF- ß, PDGF, and FGF, which are stimulated during tissue injury and repair. The role of growth factors in scar formation is not fully understood, but TGF-ß is thought to be important [147,148].
What cells are involved in tissue remodeling?
Beyond the stem cell, three other types of cells are critical to the process of tissue repair: fibroblasts, endothelial cells and macrophages. In most wounds, complete replacement of wounded tissue to its original, unharmed state is impossible.
What is the process of tissue Remodelling?
Definition: The reorganization or renovation of existing tissues. This process can either change the characteristics of a tissue such as in blood vessel remodeling, or result in the dynamic equilibrium of a tissue such as in bone remodeling.
What are the enzymes in tissue remodeling?
The most significant enzymes in ECM remodeling are metalloproteinases (Cawston and Young 2010). Two main families of metalloproteinases, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) families, are specialized in degrading the ECM.
What factors regulate tissue repair?
These include age, body type, chronic disease, immunosuppression, nutritional status, radiation therapy, and vascular insufficiencies. Age. Wounds in older patients may heal more slowly than those in younger patients, mainly because of comorbidities that occur as a person ages.
What is the extracellular matrix remodeling?
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic structure that is present in all tissues and continuously undergoes controlled remodelling. This process involves quantitative and qualitative changes in the ECM, mediated by specific enzymes that are responsible for ECM degradation, such as metalloproteinases.